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**Finance and Economics Dictionary
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English Terms
English Definitions
息票 Coupon The interest rate stated on a bond when it's issued. The coupon is typically paid semiannually.
稀有 Scarcity The basic economic problem, which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently.
洗黑钱 Money Laundering The process by which large amounts of money illegally obtained from drug trafficking, terrorist activity, or other serious crimes, is given the appearance of having originated from a legitimate source.
系统性风险 Systematic Risk risk that influences a large number of assets.
下调评级 Downgrade A negative change in the rating of a security.
下游 Downstream Refers to oil and gas operations after the production phase and through to the point of sale.
先进先出 First In, First Out (FIFO) An inventory management and valuation method where the products acquired first are the ones sold first.
先投资,后调查 Invest, Then Investigate An investment strategy where investors immediately purchase a stock and then do research and due diligence afterwards.
闲置时间 Idle Time Unproductive time spent by employees due to factors beyond their control.
现货 Cash Commodity The term used to refer to the actual or physical commodity underlying a futures contract.
现货即期价格 Spot Price The current price at which a particular commodity can be bought or sold at a specified time and place.
现货商品 Spot Commodity A commodity traded on the spot market. That is, with the expectation of actual delivery, as opposed to a commodity future that is usually not delivered.
现货市场 Cash Market The market for a cash commodity or actual, as opposed to its futures contract.
现货市场 Spot Market
  1. A commodities market in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately.
  2. A futures transaction which will expire in 1 month or less.
现金 Cash Legal tender or coins that can be used in exchange goods, debt, or services. Sometimes also including the value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company.
现金的现金回报率 Cash on Cash Return A rate of return often used in real estate transactions. The calculation determines "cash income" on "cash invested."
Annual Dollar Income
Total Dollar Investment
现金股息 Cash Dividend Money paid to stockholders, normally out of the corporation's current earnings or accumulated profits. All dividends must be declared by the board of directors, and are taxable income to the recipients.
现金及现金等价物 Cash And Cash Equivalents An element recorded on the balance sheet, it reports the value of cash and its equivalents. These are assets that are cash or can be converted into cash immediately.
现金价格 Cash Price The price of the purchase and delivery of cash commodities.
现金流 Cash Flow The amount of cash a company generates and uses during a period, calculated by adding noncash charges (such as depreciation) to the net income after taxes. Cash Flow can be used as an indication of a company's financial strength.
It is also sometimes referred to as the "money value" of trades in a stock during a trading day
现金每股盈利 Cash EPS A ratio derived from operating cash flow divided by diluted shares outstanding.
现金投资 Cash Investment Short-term obligations, usually ninety days or less, that provide a return in the form of interest payments.
现金余额养老金计划 Cash Balance Pension Plan An employee pension plan whereby an employer will credit the participant's account with a set percentage of their yearly compensation plus interest charges.
现金预算 Cash Budget An estimation of the cash inflows and outflows for a business.
现时价格 Current Price The "real time" price of a security trading on an exchange.
现时年期 Current Maturity The interval between the present date and the maturity date of a bond.
现时收益率 Current Yield Annual income (interest or dividends) divided by the current price of the security.
现值 Present Value The amount today that a sum of money in the future is worth, given a specified rate of return.
相对实力 Relative Strength A measure of price trend that indicates how a stock is performing relative to other stocks in its industry. It is calculated dividing the price performance of a stock by the price performance of an appropriate index for the same time period.
相对市盈率比率 Price-Earnings Relative A stocks price-earnings ratio divided by the price-earnings ratio for a market measure, such as the S&P 500 index or Wilshire 5000.
相关证券、相关股票 Underlying
  1. In options, the security that must be delivered if a put or call option is exercised.
  2. In equities, the common stock that underlies certain types of securities such as warrants and convertible bonds
项目融资 Project Finance Project finance is defined by the The International Project Finance Association (IPFA) as:
The financing of long-term infrastructure, industrial projects and public services based upon a non-recourse or limited recourse financial structure where project debt and equity used to finance the project are paid back from the cashflow generated by the project.
消费物价指数 CPI A measure of price changes in consumer goods and services such as gasoline, food, and automobiles
消费物价指数 Consumer Price Index (CPI) A measure of price changes in consumer goods and services such as gasoline, food, and automobiles
消费信贷 Consumer Credit A debt that someone incurs for the purpose of purchasing a good or service.
消费者信心指数 Consumer Confidence Index (CCI) A survey of consumer confidence by the Conference Board. It measures how optimistic or pessimistic consumers are with respect to the economy in the near future.
销记、注销 Write-Off To charge an asset amount to expense or loss in order to reduce the value of that asset and one's earnings.
销售报酬 Concession A selling group's compensation in an underwriting (on a per-share or per-bond basis).
销售额与现金流比率 Sales to Cash Flow Ratio A ratio that indicates whether or not a company's sales are high in comparison to its cash flow.
Calculated as:
Sales per Share
Cash Flow per Share
销售回报率 Return On Sales (ROS) A widely used ratio that detects operational efficiency. It is calculated by dividing net income before interest and tax by the sales.
销售及行政开支 Selling, General, & Administrative Expenses (SG&A) Reported on the Income Statement, it is all the costs associated with selling and the general expenses of running the business.
销售税 Sales Tax A tax that is imposed on the sale price of a retail good or services.
效益比例 Efficiency Ratio A ratio used to calculate a bank's efficiency. Not all banks calculate the efficiency ratio the same way. We've seen the ratio calculated as all of the following:
  1. non-interest expense divided by total revenue less interest expense
  2. non-interest expense divided by net interest income before provision for loan losses
  3. non-interest expense divided into revenue
  4. operating expenses divided by fee income plus tax equivalent net interest income
For all versions of the ratio, an increase means the company is losing a larger percentage of its income to expenses. If it is getting lower, it is good for the bank and its shareholders.
效益成本比率 Benefit Cost Ratio - (BCR) A ratio attempting to clearly identify the relationship between the cost and benefits of a proposed project.
协同效应 Synergy Used mostly in the context of mergers and acquisitions, synergy is the idea that the value and performance of two companies combined will be greater than the sum of the separate individual parts.
新经济 New Economy A buzzword describing the new, high growth industries that are on the cutting edge of technology and are the driving force of economic growth.
新闻稿 Press Release If it's an earnings press release, the release will discuss the financial results of the company for the recently completed quarter and may provide comments from management. Press releases often list valuable contact information that can assist you in your research, such as the company's web address.
新兴市场基金 Emerging Market Fund A mutual fund investing a majority of its assets in the financial markets of a developing country, typically a small market with a short operating history.
信贷额度、资金设施 Facility A term used to describe financial assistance programs offered by lending institutions to help companies requiring capital.
信贷额度、信贷限额 Line of Credit An arrangement between a financial institution (usually a bank) and a customer establishing a maximum loan balance that the bank will permit the borrower to maintain.
信贷风险 Credit Risk The possibility of a loss occurring due to the financial failure to meet contractual debt obligations.
信贷违约掉期 Credit Default Swap A swap designed to transfer the credit exposure of fixed income products between parties.
信贷息差 Credit Spread
  1. The spread between Treasury securities and non-Treasury securities that are identical in all respects except for quality rating.
  2. An options strategy where a high premium option is sold and a low premium option is bought on the same underlying security.
信贷、信用、贷项 Credit
  1. A contractual agreement in which a borrower receives something of value now, with the agreement to repay the lender at some date in the future. Also, the borrowing capacity of an individual or company.
  2. An accounting entry system that either decreases assets or increases liabilities.
信贷衍生工具 Credit Derivative Privately held negotiable bilateral contracts that allow users to manage their exposure to credit risk. Credit Derivatives are financial assets like forward contracts, swaps, and options for which the price is driven by the credit risk of economic agents (private investors or governments).
信托 Trust A fiduciary relationship in which one person, a trustee, holds title to property or assets for the benefit of another person, the beneficiary
信用合作社 Credit Union Member-owned financial co-operative. These institutions are created and operated by its members and profits are shared amongst the owners.
信用卡 Credit Card A card allowing someone to make a purchase on borrowed money. Credit cards are one of the most popular forms of payment for consumer goods and services in the United States.
信用评级 Credit Rating An assessment of the credit worthiness of individuals and corporations. It is based upon the history of borrowing and repayment, as well as the availability of assets and extent of liabilities.
信用悬崖 Credit Cliff A slang term meaning that credit deterioration could be compounded by provisions such as rating triggers or financial covenants. These can put pressure on the company's liquidity or its business to a material extent.
信用证 Letter of Credit A letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer's payment to a seller will be received on time and for the correct amount.
行为经济学 Behavioral Economics A field of economics that studies how the actual decision-making process influences the decisions that are reached.
行为金融学 Behavioral Finance A field of finance that proposes psychology-based theories to explain stock market anomalies. Within behavioral finance it is assumed that the information structure and the characteristics of market participants systematically influence their investment decisions as well as market outcomes.
行使价格 Strike Price The stated price per share for which underlying stock may be purchased (for a call) or sold (for a put) by the option holder upon exercise of the option contract.
行使、执行 Exercise An action by a stockholder taking advantage of a privilege offered by a company or other financial institution. This includes warrants, options, and other exotic financial instruments.
熊市 Bear Market A market in which prices of a certain group of securities are falling or are expected to fall. Although figures can vary, a downturn of 15%-20% or more in multiple indexes (Dow or S&P 500) is considered a bear market.
需求 Demand A consumer's desire and willingness to pay for a good or service.
需求的价格弹性 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to a change in its price. It is calculated as:
% Change in Quantity Demanded
% Change in Price
需求建档 Book Building The process by which the offer price of an IPO is based on actual demand from institutional investors.
宣告(合约)无效、废止契约 Defeasance A provision that voids a bond or loan when the borrower sets aside cash or bonds sufficient enough to service the borrower's debt.
选出最有利的(投资等) Cherry Picking
  1. The act of investors choosing investments that have performed well within another portfolio in anticipation that the trend will continue.
  2. Relating to bankruptcy proceedings whereby the courts uphold contracts favorable to bankrupt companies, but annul those that are unfavorable.
循环信贷 Revolving Credit A line of credit where the customer pays a commitment fee and is then allowed to take and repay funds at will. It is usually used for operating purposes, fluctuating each month depending on revenues and expenditures
迅速换手投资者 Flipper A short-term investor or day trader who buys pre IPO shares, swiftly spinning them out into public markets for a quick profit.

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