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**Finance and Economics Dictionary
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English Terms
English Definitions
垃圾债券、高风险债券 Junk Bond A bond purchased for speculative purposes. They are usually rated BB or lower, and they have a higher default risk.
来自营运现金流 Funds From Operations (FFO) Used by real estate investment trusts (REITS) to define the cash flow from their operations. It is calculated by adding depreciation and amortization expenses to earnings, and sometimes quoted on a per share basis.
蓝筹 Blue Chip A security from a well-established, financially-sound, and stable company that has demonstrated its ability to pay dividends in both good and bad times.
劳工密集 Labor Intensive A process or industry that requires large amounts of human effort to produce goods.
乐观投资者 Bull An investor who thinks the market, a specific security, or an industry will rise.
累积股息 Cumulative Dividend A limitation placed upon corporations ensuring the payment of preferred dividends before making distributions to common shareholders.
累计投票 Cumulative Voting The procedure of voting for a company's directors, where each shareholder is entitled one vote per share times the number of directors to be elected. This is sometimes known as proportional voting.
累进税 Progressive Tax A tax that takes a larger percentage from the income of high-income people than it does from low-income people.
累退税 Regressive Tax A tax that takes a larger percentage from the income of low-income people than the income of high-income people.
理论性道琼斯指数 Theoretical Dow Jones Index A method of calculating a Dow Jones index (most often the DJIA) that assumes all index components hit their high or low at the same time during the day.
利率 Interest Rate The monthly effective rate paid (or received if you are a creditor) on borrowed money. Expressed as a percentage of the sum borrowed.
利率变动风险防范 Immunization A strategy that matches the durations of assets and liabilities, thereby minimizing the impact of interest rates on the net worth.
利率掉期 Interest Rate Swap A deal between banks or companies where borrowers switch floating-rate loans for fixed rate loans in another country. These can be either the same or different currencies.
利率平价理论 Interest Rate Parity A theory that the interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the differential between the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rate.
利润 Profit The same as net income, it is the company's total earnings less expenses.
利润分成计划 Profit Sharing Plan A plan wherein the employees get a share in the profits of the company. The company decides what portion of the profit will be shared. Each employee then receives, into an account, a percentage of those profits based on their earnings. There are typically restrictions as to when and how you can withdraw these funds without penalties.
利润率 Profit Margin An indicator of profitability, It is calculated as net earnings after taxes divided by revenues. Profit margin is usually displayed as a percentage.
利润预警 Profit Warning When a company advises its earnings won't meet analyst expectations.
利润中心 Profit Center The branch or division of a company that creates profits individually and separately from the main organization.
利息、权益 Interest
  1. The charge for the privilege of borrowing money, typically expressed as an annual percentage rate.
  2. The amount of ownership a stockholder has in a company, usually expressed as a percentage.
连带、共同 Jointly and Severally
  1. A legal term describing a partnership wherein individual decisions are binding against all parties involved and thus undivided.
  2. A term used in underwriting syndicates to refer to the distinct responsibility of individual companies to sell a certain portion of unsold new issue.
连带违约 Cross Default A provisions in a bond indenture or loan agreement that puts the borrower in default if the borrower defaults on another obligation.
联邦储备模型 Fed Model A model thought to be used by the Federal Reserve that hypothesizes a relationship between long-term treasury notes and the market return of equities.
联邦储备体系 Federal Reserve System (the Fed) The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States.
联邦储备委员会 Federal Reserve Board (FRB) The governing body of the Federal Reserve System. The seven members of the Board of Governors are appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate.
联邦储备银行 Federal Reserve Bank The banks that carry out Fed operations, including controlling the money supply and regulating member banks. There are 12 District Feds, headquartered in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, St. Louis, San Francisco, Richmond, Atlanta, Chicago, Minneapolis, Kansas City, and Dallas.
联邦基金 Federal Funds Funds deposited to regional Federal Reserve Banks by commercial banks, including funds in excess of reserve requirements.
联邦基金利率 Federal Funds Rate The interest rate at which a depository institution lends immediately available funds (balances at the Federal Reserve) to another depository institution overnight.
联储局 Fed The governing body of the Federal Reserve System. The seven members of the Board of Governors are appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate.
联储局 The Fed The governing body of the Federal Reserve System. The seven members of the Board of Governors are appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate.
联合账户 Joint Account A brokerage or bank account that is owned together (jointly) by two or more people.
联营公司 Affiliated Companies A situation that occurs when one company owns a minority interest (less than 50%) in another company. Also refers to companies that are related to each other in some way.
廉价急售 Distressed Sale An urgent sale of assets because of negative conditions.
[廉价]倾销 Dumping
  1. In international trade, this occurs when one country exports a significant amount of goods to another country at prices much lower than in the domestic market.
  2. A slang term for selling a stock with little regard for price.
两地上市 Dual Listing The listing of a company's shares on more than one stock exchange.
零和游戏 Zero-Sum Game A situation in which one participant's gains result only from another participant's equivalent losses. The net change is always 0.
零期限货币 Money Zero Maturity (MZM) A measure of the liquid money supply within an economy. MZM represents all money in M2 less the time deposits, plus all money market funds.
零售投资者 Retail Investor Individual investors who buy and sell securities for their personal account, and not for another company or organization.
零售银行 Retail Banking Retail banking is typical mass-market banking where individual customers use local branches of larger commercial banks. Services offered include: savings and checking accounts, mortgages, personal loans, debit cards, credit cards, and so forth.
零息票可转换证券 Zero-Coupon Convertible A zero-coupon bond issued by a corporation, it can be converted into that corporation's common stock at a certain price.
零息票债券 Zero-Coupon Bond A corporate or municipal debt security traded at a deep discount from face value. It is traded at a deep discount because the bond pays no interest. The profit is realized when the bond is redeemed at maturity for its full face value. It may be issued at a discount, or it may be stripped of its coupons by a bank and then repackaged as a zero coupon bond.
零星股、散股 Odd Lot An amount of a security that is less than the normal unit of trading for that particular security.
流动比率 Working Ratio A ratio used to measure a company's ability to recover operating costs from annual revenue. This ratio is calculated by taking the company's total annual expenses (excluding depreciation and debt-related expenses) and dividing by the annual gross income
流动比率 Current Ratio Indicator of company's ability to pay short-term obligations; calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities.
流动负债 Current Liabilities Usually appearing on a company's balance sheet, it represents the amount owed for interest, accounts payable, short-term loans, expenses incurred but unpaid, and other debts due within one year.
流动性偏好理论 Liquidity Preference Theory The hypothesis that forward rates offer a premium over expected future spot rates.
流动资产 Current Assets Appearing on a company's balance sheet, it represents cash, accounts receivable, inventory, marketable securities, prepaid expenses, and other assets that can be converted to cash within one year.
流通风险 Liquidity Risk The risk stemming from the lack of marketability of an investment that cannot be bought or sold quickly enough to prevent or minimize a loss.
流通性、变现能力 Liquidity
  1. The degree to which an asset or security can be bought or sold in the market without affecting the asset's price. Liquidity is characterized by a high level of trading activity.
  2. The ability to convert an asset to cash quickly.
流通资产净值 Net Liquid Assets A company's liquid financial assets minus its current liabilities.
龙债券 Dragon Bond A bond that is issued in Asia, but the denomination of the bond is in U.S. dollars.
垄断、专利 Monopoly A situation in which a single company owns all or nearly all of the market for a given type of product or service.
For a strict academic definition, a monopoly is a market containing a single firm.
路演 Road Show A presentation by an issuer of securities to potential buyers. It is intended to create interest in the securities.
伦敦银行同业拆放利率 LIBOR This is the rate of interest at which banks borrow funds, in marketable size, from other banks in the London interbank market.
伦敦银行同业拆放利率 London Interbank Offer Rate (LIBOR) This is the rate of interest at which banks borrow funds, in marketable size, from other banks in the London interbank market.

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